Important Inventions and Discoveries PDF covers the list of all Important Inventions This list gives important Inventions and Inventor name. THIS book contains twelve stories of great inventions, with a concluding chapter on famous inventors of to-day. Each of the inventions de- scribed has added to. New things that are made or created are called inventions. Cars and Probably one of the most famous inventor we all take for granted is Levi. Strauss.
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Famous Inventions and Inventors PDF - Free download as PDF File .pdf), Text File .txt) or read online for free. Famous-inventions-and-inventors-pdf. The invention happened by accident. Dr. . More accidental discoveries and inventions. 4. Silver and he had become as famous as Tutankhamen himself. Static genral knowledge topic which covers all comitative exams such as IBPS, SSC, CPO, Railways,Banking. List of all famous Inventors and.
Comments 5. Label: Science. Inventor : Blaise Pascal France Earliest commercial machine invented by William Burroughs U.
Louis, Missouri in Addressograph, Inventor : J. Duncan U. Manufactured in Chicago, Illinois. Airplane, Kitty Hawk, North Carolina. Airship non-rigid , Inventor : Henri Giffard France Steam-powered propeller flew over Paris Airship rigid , Inventor : Graf Ferdinand von Zeppelin Germany Antiseptic, Inventor : Dr. Joseph Lister England. Arc Lamp, Inventor : C. Brush U. Cleveland, Ohio. Argon, Aspirin, Felix Hoffman, Germany.
Atom Bomb, Inventor : Julius Robert Oppenheimer U.
S Autogiro, Inventor : Juan de la Cierva Spain Horizontal unpowered rotor. Automobile steam , c.
Inventor : Nicolas Cugnot France Three-wheeled military tractor. Oldest surviving is Italian Bordino in Turin. Automobile gasoline , Inventor : Karl Benz Germany Earliest model by Father Ferdinand Verbiest d. Earliest internal combustion automobile built by Jean Joseph Etienne Lenior France. Patented in January 29, First powered handcartwith internal combustion engine was by Siegfried Marcus Austria c. Bakelite, Inventor : Lwo H.
Balloon, Tethered flight, Paris October 15 ; manned free flight, Paris. Ballpoint Pen, Inventor : John J.
Loud U. First practical models by Ladisloa and George Biro Hungary in Barbed Wire, Inventor : Joseph F. Glidden U.
Bicycle Tyres pneumatic , Inventor : John Boyd Dunlop Scotland First motor car pneumatic tyres adapted by Andre and Edouard Michelin France , see rubber tyres. Bifocal Lens, Inventor : Benjamin Franklin U. His earliest experiments began c. Bullet, Inventor : Claude Minie France. Bunsen Burner, Inventor : Robert Wilhelm von Bunsen Germany Michael Faraday England had previously designed an adjustable burner.
Burglar Alarm, Inventor : Edwin T. Holmes U. Electric installed, Boston Massachusetts February Cadmium, Discovered : Friedrich Stromeyer Germany. Cannon iron , c. Inventor : Germany. Earliest English illustration dated Carburettor, Inventor : Gottlieb Daimler Germany Carburettor spray; Charles E. Duryea U.
Carpet Sweeper, Inventor : Melville R. Bissell U.
Grand Rapids, March. Patent, September Car Radio, Cash Register, Inventor : James Ritty U. Built in Dayton, Ohio. Taken over by National Cash Register Co. Cellophane, Inventor : I.
Can you name their most famous inventions?
Brandenberger Switzerland. Machine production not before Celluloid, Inventor : Alexander Parkes England Invented in Birmingham, England; developed and trade marked by I. Hyatt U. Cement, Inventor : Joseph Aspdin England. Chain Drive, Inventor : Leonardo da Vinci Drawings made in Milan Italy were discovered in Spain in Chlorine, Discoverer : Karl Wilhelm Scheele Sweden. Chronometer, Inventor : John Harrison England Cinema, Edison U.
Inventor : Melvil Dewey U. Introduced his decimal classification in Clock mechanical , Earliest escapement years before Europe. Clock pendulum , Inventor : Christian Huygens Netherlands Dacron, Inventors: J. Whinfield , J. Dickson England. First available , marketed in U. Dental Plate, Inventor : Anthony A. Plantson U. Dental Plate rubber , Inventor : Charles Goodyear U.
Diesel Engine, Inventor : Rudolf Diesel Germany Lower pressure oil engine patent by Stuart Akroyd, Diesel's first commercial success, Augsberg, Disc Brake, Lanchester England.
First used on aircraft Dunlop Rubber Co. Electric Battery, Inventor : Volta Italian Electric Blanket; Inventor : Simmons Co. Thermostatic control. Electric Cooking Utensil, Inventor : St. George Lane-Fox England. Electric Fan, Inventor : Wheeler USA. Electric Flat Iron, Inventor : H. Seeley U. Electric Generation Static , Inventor : Otto von Gueriche Germany. Electric Lamp, Inventor : Thomas Alva Edison U.
First practical demonstration at Menlo Park, New Jersey. Electric Motor DC , Inventor : Zenobe Gramme Belgium Exhibited in Vienna. Electric Motor AC , Inventor : Nikola Tesla U. Electromagnet, Inventor : William Sturgeon England b. Electromagnetic Induction, Electronic Computer, Brainerd, J. Eckert, J. Mauchly U. Elevator, Inventor : Elisha G. Otis U.
Earliest elevator at Yonkers, N.
Film musical , Lee de Forest U. New York demonstration March Film talking , Inventor : Warner Bros. Fluroine, Food Frozen, Inventor : Birdseyes USA.
Fountain Pen, Inventor : Lewis E. Waterman U. Patented by D. Hyde U. Gas Lighting, Inventor : William Murdock Scotland , Generator, Inventor : Piciontti Italian. Two of these people were Wilbur and Orville Wright. Library of Congress Airplane The Wright brothers were more than just tinkerers who accidentally found out how to build a flying machine.
In , Wilbur wrote the Smithsonian Institution for a list of books to help them learn about flying. They used the research of people such as George Cayley, Octave Chanute, Samuel Langley, and Otto Lilienthal to help them plan their own experiments with birds, kites, and gliders.
They even built their own wind tunnel. They never fully trusted the results of other peoples research, so they repeated the experiments of others and drew their own conclusions. They shared these results with Octave Chanute, who was able to offer them lots of good advice. They were continuing a tradition of excellence in engineering that began with careful research and avoided dangerous trial and error.
Slow Success Before the brothers had set their minds to flying, they had built and repaired bicycles. This was a great help to them when they put their research into practice and actually built an airplane. From building bicycles, they knew how to work with wood and metal to make a lightweight but sturdy machine. Just as important, from riding bicycles, they got ideas about how an airplane needed to work. They could see that both bicycles and airplanes needed to be fast and light.
They could also see that airplanes, like bicycles, needed to be kept under constant control to stay balanced, and that this control would probably take practice. This was a unique idea. Instead of building something solid that was controlled by levers and wheels like a car, the Wright brothers built a flexible airplane that was controlled partly by the movement of the pilot, like a bicycle. The result was the Wright Flyer.
The Flyer had two sets of wings, one above the other, which were about 12 meters from tip to tip. They made their own horsepower engine, as well as the two propellers the engine spun. The craft had skids instead of wheels. The first thing Wilbur found was that flying an airplane was not as easy as riding a bicycle.
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One wrong move sent him tumbling into Airplane The Wright Brothers Orville and his older brother Wilbur first got interested in aircraft when their father gave them a toy helicopter in Theirs was a large, supportive family. Their father, a minister, and their mother, a college graduate and inventor of household gadgets, encouraged all five of the children to be creative.
Although Wilbur, born in , was four years older than Orville, they were close as children. While in high school, they put out a weekly newspaper together, West Side News, and they opened their bicycle shop in Orville was the mechanically adept member of the team, the tinkerer; Wilbur was the deliberative one, the planner and designer.
Since the bicycle business was seasonal, they had time to pursue their interest in aircraft, puzzling out the technical problems and studying the successes and failures of others. They started with gliders, flying their first, which had a five-foot wing span, in They developed their own technique to control the gliders, the wing-warping technique, after watching how birds fly. They attached wires to the trailing edges of the wings and pulled the wires to deform the wings shape.
They built a sixteen-foot glider in and spent a vacation in North Carolina gaining flying experience. Further designs and many more tests followed, including more than two hundred shapes of wing studied in their home-built wind tunnel, before their first successful engine-powered flight in Neither man ever married. After Wilbur died of typhoid in , Orville was stricken by the loss of his brother but continued to run their business until He last piloted an airplane himself in and died thirty years later.
Small parts from the aircraft were taken to the Moon by Neil Armstrong and Edwin Aldrin when they made the first landing there in Wilbur was not seriously hurt, but a few more days were needed to repair the Wright Flyer.
On December 17, , at a. He covered 37 meters of ground and meters of air space. Both brothers took two flights that morning. On the fourth flight, Wilbur flew for fifty-nine seconds over meters of ground and through more than meters of air space.
After he had landed, a sudden gust of wind struck the plane, damaging it beyond repair. Yet no one was able to beat their record for three years. Impact Those first flights in got little publicity.
Only a few people, such as Octave Chanute, understood the significance of the Wright brothers achievement. For the next two years, they continued to work on their design, and by they had built the Wright Flyer III.
Important Inventions and Discoveries PDF
Although Chanute tried to get them to enter flying contests, the brothers decided to be cautious and try to get their machine patented first, so that no one would be able to steal their ideas. News of their success spread slowly through the United States and Europe, giving hope to others who were working on airplanes of their own. By , when the brothers started flying in air shows and contests, their feats were matched by another American, Glen Hammond Curtiss.
The age of the airplane had arrived. Later in the decade, the Wright brothers began to think of military uses for their airplanes. They signed a contract with the U. Army Signal Corps and agreed to train military pilots.
Aside from these achievements, the brothers from Dayton, Ohio, set the standard for careful research and practical experimentation. They taught the world not only how to fly but also how to design airplanes. Indeed, their methods of purposeful, meaningful, and highly organized research had an impact not only on airplane design but also on the field of aviation science in general. Carbondale: Southern Illinois University Press, New York: McGraw-Hill, Culik, Fred, and Spencer Dunmore.
Toronto: McArthur, Howard, Fred. Mineola, N. The people behind the invention: Thomas Alva Edison , American chemist, inventor, and industrialist Henry Ford , American inventor and industrialist Charles F.
Kettering , American engineer and inventor A Three-Way Race The earliest automobiles were little more than pairs of bicycles harnessed together within a rigid frame, and there was little agreement at first regarding the best power source for such contraptions.
The steam engine, which was well established for railroad and ship transportation, required an external combustion area and a boiler. Internal combustion engines required hand cranking, which could cause injury if the motor backfired. Electric motors were attractive because they did not require the burning of fuel, but they required batteries that could store a considerable amount of energy and could be repeatedly recharged. Ninety percent of the motorcabs in use in New York City in were electrically powered.
The first practical storage battery, which was invented by the French physicist Gaston Plant in , employed electrodes conductors that bring electricity into and out of a conducting medium of lead and lead oxide and a sulfuric acid electrolyte a solution that conducts electricity.
In somewhat improved form, this remained the only practical rechargeable battery at the beginning of the twentieth century. Edison considered the lead acid cell battery unsuitable as a power source for electric vehicles because using lead, one of the densest metals known, resulted in a heavy battery that added substantially to the power requirements of a motorcar.
In addition, the use of an acid electrolyte required that 12 Alkaline storage battery the battery container be either nonmetallic or coated with a nonmetal and thus less dependable than a steel container. The Edison Battery In , Edison began experiments aimed at developing a rechargeable battery with inexpensive and lightweight metal electrodes and an alkaline electrolyte so that a metal container could be used.
He had already been involved in manufacturing the nonrechargeable battery known as the Lalande cell, which had zinc and copper oxide electrodes and a highly alkaline sodium hydroxide electrolyte. Zinc electrodes could not be used in a rechargeable cell because the zinc would dissolve in the electrolyte.
The copper electrode also turned out to be unsatisfactory. After much further experimentation, Edison settled on the nickel-iron system for his new storage battery. In this system, the power-producing reaction involved the conversion of nickel oxide to nickel hydroxide together with the oxidation of iron metal to iron oxide, with both materials in contact with a potassium hydroxide solution.
When the battery was recharged, the nickel hydroxide was converted into oxide and the iron oxide was converted back to the pure metal. Although the basic ingredients of the Edison cell were inexpensive, they could not readily be obtained in adequate purity for battery use. Edison set up a new chemical works to prepare the needed materials.
He downloadd impure nickel alloy, which was then dissolved in acid, purified, and converted to the hydroxide. He prepared pure iron powder by using a multiple-step process. For use in the battery, the reactant powders had to be packed in pockets made of nickel-plated steel that had been perforated to alThomas A.
Library of Congress Alkaline storage battery 13 low the iron and nickel powders to come into contact with the electrolyte. Because the nickel compounds were poor electrical conductors, a flaky type of graphite was mixed with the nickel hydroxide at this stage.
Sales of the new Edison storage battery began in , but within six months it became apparent that the battery was subject to losses in power and a variety of other defects. His astonishing success story, rising from a home-schooled child who worked as a newsboy to a leader in American industry, was celebrated in childrens books, biographies, and movies.
Corporations still bear his name, and his inventions and improvements of others inventionssuch as the light bulb, phonograph, and motion pictureshaped the way Americans live, work, and entertain themselves.
The U. Patent Office issued Edison 1, patents during his lifetime, the most granted to one person. Hailed as a genius, Edison himself emphasized the value of plain determination. Genius is one percent inspiration and 99 percent perspiration, he insisted. He also understood the value of working with others. In fact, one of his greatest contributions to American technology involved organized research. He invested the money in building an industrial research laboratory, the first ever.
It led to his large facilities at Menlo Park, New Jersey, and, later, labs in other locations. At times as many as one hundred people worked for him, some of whom, such as Nikola Tesla and Reginald Fessenden, became celebrated inventors in their own right. At his labs Edison not only developed electrical items, such as the light bulb and storage battery; he also produced an efficient mimeograph and worked on innovations in metallurgy, organic chemistry, photography and motion pictures, and phonography.
The phonograph, he once said, was his favorite invention. Edison never stopped working. He was still receiving patents the year he died. Not a man to abandon an invention, however, he spent the next five years examining the failed batteries and refining his design. He discovered that the repeated charging and discharging of the battery caused a shift in the distribution of the graphite in the nickel hydroxide electrode. By using a different type of graphite, he was able to eliminate this problem and produce a very dependable power source.
Thomas Edison - Invented the light bulb, phonograph, and the motion picture.
Robert Fulton - Built the first commercially successful steamboat. Galileo - First used the telescope to view the planets and stars. Jane Goodall - Studied chimpanzees in the wild for many years. Johannes Gutenberg - Invented the printing press.
Antoine Lavoisier - Father of modern chemistry. James Naismith - Invented the sport of basketball. Isaac Newton - Discovered the theory of gravity and the three laws of motion. Louis Pasteur - Discovered pasteurization, vaccines, and founded the science of germ theory.
The Wright Brothers - Invented the first airplane.
Types of Scientists Scientists study the world around us using the scientific method. They perform experiments to find out how nature works.Inventor : Edmund Cartwright England Oklahoma City July The steam engine, which was well established for railroad and ship transportation, required an external combustion area and a boiler.
Consequences In the years that have followed Beviss original observation, many improvements in the methodology of amniocentesis and in the techniques used in gathering and analyzing the genetic and biochemical information obtained have led to good results.
First described on April 30, , by Charles Cross France This is because most scientists study and become experts in a specific field of science.
Ornithologist - Studies birds. Types of Scientists Scientists study the world around us using the scientific method.
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